Worksheets & Ideas for Years 5-10

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Maths Mysteries **click graphic for print version** 

The Missing 8

                    Without 8
12 345 679 x   9 = 111 111 111
12 345 679 x 18 = 222 222 222
12 345 679 x 27 = 333 333 333
12 345 679 x 36 = 444 444 444
     and notice…
12 345 679 x 999 999 999 =
12 345 678 987 654 321
                     With the 8
123 456 789 x   9 = 1 111 111 101
123 456 789 x 18 = 2 222 222 202
123 456 789 x 27 = 3 333 333 303
123 456 789 x 36 = 4 444 444 404
     and notice…
123 456 789 x 999 999 999 =
123 456 788 876 543 211


Complete these:

                  Without the 8…..

1) 12 345 679 x 45 =           2) 12 345 679 x 54 =         3) 12 345 679 x 63 =

4) 12 345 679 x 72 =           5) 12 345 679 x 81 =

                         With the 8…. 

6)   123 456 789 x 45 =       7)   123 456 789 x 54 =       8)   123 456 789 x 63 =

9)   123 456 789 x 72 =       10) 123 456 789 x 81 =

The ‘without 8’ pattern continues below:

12 345 679 x 90   =   1 111 111 110

12 345 679 x 99   =   1 222 222 221

12 345 679 x 108 =   1 333 333 332

   Fill in the answers to these:

11) 12 345 679 x 117 =       12) 12 345 679 x 126 =       13) 12 345 679 x 135 =

14) 12 345 679 x 144 =       15) 12 345 679 x 153 =       16) 12 345 679 x 162 =

The ‘with the  8’ pattern continues below:

123 456 789 x 90 =  11 111 111 010

123 456 789 x 99 =  12 222 222 111

123 456 789 x 108 =13 333 333 212

   Now fill in the answers to these:

17) 123 456 789 x 117 =       18) 123 456 789 x 126 =       19) 123 456 789 x 135 =

20) 123 456 789 x 144 =       21) 123 456 789 x 153 =       22) 123 456 789 x 162 =

Solutions to The Missing 8

1) 555 555 555                  2) 666 666 666              3) 777 777 777                    

4) 888 888 888                 5) 999 999 999                6) 5 555 555 505

7) 6 666 666 606             8) 7 777 777 707             9) 8 888 888 808            

10) 9 999 999 909           11) 1 444 444 443               12) 1 555 555 554

13) 1 666 666 665             14) 1 777 777 776               15) 1 888 888 887                

16) 1 999 999 998              17) 14 444 444 313             18) 15 555 555 414

19) 16 666 666 515            20) 17 777 777 616              21) 18 888 888 717            

22) 19 999 999 818


Multiples of 9

987 654 321 x   9 =   8 888 888 889

987 654 321 x 18 = 17 777 777 778

987 654 321 x 27 = 26 666 666 667

987 654 321 x 36 = 35 555 555 556

987 654 321 x 45 = 44 444 444 445


1) What do you notice about the first and last digits of the product?

Complete these:

2) 987 654 321 x 54 =

3) 987 654 321 x 63 =

4) 987 654 321 x 72 =

5) 987 654 321 x 81 =

Solutions to Multiples of 9

1) Same as the multiplier        2) 53 333 333 334 3) 62 222 222 223                    4) 71 111 111 112 5) 80 000 000 001


Amazing Number 2 520

The number 2 520 can be divided by 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 and 7 and 8 and 9 and 10.


1) Write down the first ten factors of 2 520.

2) 7 and 8 are factors of 2 520; does that mean that 56 is a factor of 2 520?

3) 28, 35, 42. Which of these are not factors of 2 520?

4) 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24. Seven of these ten numbers are also factors of 2 520. Which ones are they?

5) Can 5 040 be divided by 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 and 7 and 8 and 9 and 10?

6) 2 520 divided by 2 equals 1 260. Which of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are not factors of 1 260?

Solutions to Amazing Number 2 520

1) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10        2) yes 3) None of them. They all divide evenly into 2 520. 4) 12, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24        5) yes        6) 8 


Mysterious Primes

Every prime number except for 2 and 3 is evenly divisible by 6 if you either subtract 1 from it or add 1 to it.

Example 1:    13-1=12 and 12 is divisible by 6

Example 2:    17+1=18 and 18 is divisible by 6.


1. Does the rule work for the prime 37? Test it.

2. Does the rule work for the prime 41? Test it.

3. Does the rule work for the prime 43? Test it.

4. Does the rule work for the prime 47? Test it.

5. Does the rule work for the prime 59? Test it.

6. What prime number gives a quotient of 4 after 1 is added to it and the result is divided by 6?

7. What prime number gives a quotient of 5 after 1 is subtracted from it and the result is divided by 6?

8. What prime number gives a quotient of 2 after 1 is added to it and the result is divided by 6?

9. What prime number gives a quotient of 3 after 1 is subtracted from it and the result is divided by 6?

10. What prime number gives a quotient of 9 after 1 is added to it and the result is divided by 6?

Solutions to Mysterious Primes

1. yes      2. yes      3. yes      4. yes      5. yes

6. 23      7. 31      8. 11      9. 19      10. 53 


Curiosities & Perplexities **click graphic for print version** 


Positive Even Integers Greater Than 2

Every positive even integer can be written as the sum of two primes.

Examples:     6=3+3       8=3+5       10=3+7       18=7+11       20=7+13

Challenge: Write two primes that add to the following even numbers.

(1) 14         (2) 22        (3) 30        (4) 32        (5) 34        

(6) 36        (7) 38         (8) 40        (9) 50        (10) 60      

(11) 64       (12) 68      (13) 70       (14) 76       (15) 78       

(16) 80     (17) 84      (18) 92      (19) 96      (20) 100    

 Solutions to Positive Even Integers Greater Than 2 (in cases where there are multiple solutions up to three solutions are given)

(1)         11+3,   7+7           (2)        17+5,   3+19,   11+11

(3)        19+11,   7+23,   13+17      (4)        19+13,   3+29

(5)        23+11,   5+29,   17+17      (6)        17+19,   5+31,   7+29

(7)         7+31,   19+19        (8)        23+17,   29+11,   3+37

(9)        31+19,   37+13,   47+3      (10)      31+29,   23+37,   19+41

(11)       23+41,   5+59,   11+53        (12)      31+37,   7+61

(13)       3+67,   11+59,   17+53        (14)       47+29,   5+71,   17+59

(15)       41+37,   5+73,   7+71        (16)      19+61,   7+73,   13+67

(17)       79+5,   11+73,   13+71        (18)      89+3,   13+79,   19+73

(19)      79+17,   13+83,   23+73        (20)     53+47,   7+93,   11+89


Odd Numbers Greater Than 7

Odd numbers greater than 7 can be expressed as the sum of three odd primes.

Examples:      9=3+3+3        17=3+3+11       19=3+5+11       37=3+11+23       

Challenge: Write three odd primes that add to the following odd numbers.

1. 41

2. 29

3. 23

4. 53

5. 43

6. 61

7. 67

8. 47

9. 59

10. 31

11. 71

12. 79

13. 83

14. 89

15. 97

16. 101

17. 103

18. 113

19. 127

20. 131

 Solutions to Odd Numbers Greater Than 7 (in cases where there are multiple solutions up to three solutions are given) 1. 3+7+31, 5+13+23, 7+11+23 2. 3+7+19, 5+5+19, 3+3+23 3. 3+7+13, 5+5+13, 5+7+11 4. 3+7+43, 3+13+37, 5+5+43 5. 5+19+19, 11+13+19, 11+15+17 6. 7+13+41, 3+17+41, 3+5+53 7. 11+19+37, 13+17+37, 7+23+37 8. 5+13+29, 7+11+29, 7+17+23 9. 5+7+47, 31+23+5, 17+19+23 10. 7+7+17, 3+11+17, 5+7+19 11. 3+31+37, 29+11+31, 29+29+13 12. 7+31+41, 19+19+41, 19+23+27 13. 11+31+41, 13+29+41, 33+37+13 14. 11+37+41, 7+41+41, 5+41+43 15. 19+37+41, 23+37+37, 29+31+37 16. 19+41+41, 23+37+41, 29+31+41 17. 23+37+43, 19+41+43, 19+31+53 18. 23+37+53, 19+41+53, 5+7+101 19. 37+37+53, 3+5+119, 7+11+109 20. 37+41+53, 5+7+119, 5+19+107


Speedy Maths **click graphic for print version**

Multiplying Two-Digit Numbers by 11

The first step is to write the number, leaving some space between the two digits.

Then insert the sum of the number’s two digits in between the two digits themselves; you will have to carry when the sum of the digits exceeds 9.

Example 1:  36 x 11

1) 3 6

2) 3+6=9

3) 396

Example 2:  78 x 11.

1) 7 8

2) 7+8=15

3) 858


How fast can you do these?

1)  25 x 11      2)  42 x 11     3)  72 x 11     4)  34 x 11

5)  26 x 11     6)  84 x 11     7)  76 x 11     8)  97 x 11

9)  67 x 11     10)  46 x 11

Use the same method  but work backwards:

11)  ? x 11 = 396      12)  ? x 11 = 781      13)  ? x 11 = 187

14)  ? x 11 = 385     15)  ? x 11 = 484     16)  ? x 11 = 748

17)  ? x 11 = 209     18)  ? x 11 = 638     19)  ? x 11 = 858

20)  ? x 11 = 1 078

Solutions to Multiplying Two Digit Numbers by 11

 1)  275    2)  462    3)  792    4)  374    5)  286

6)  924    7)  836    8)  1 067    9)  737    10)  506

11)  36    12)  71    13)  17    14)  35    15)  44

16)  68    17)  19    18)  58    19)  78    20)  98


Squaring Two Digit Numbers ending in 5

To square a number ending in 5, first multiply the number formed by the digit(s) in front of the 5 by the next whole number. To that product, affix the number 25. The number to affix (25) is easy to remember, because 52 = 25.

Example 1: How much is 252 ?

      2 x 3 = 6         Write down 6 and affix 25…  = 625

Example 2: How much is 752 ?

      7 x 8 = 56       Write down 56 and affix 25…  = 5 625


1. How much is 852 – 352 ?     7225 – 1225 =

2. How much is 452 + 952 ?     2025 + 9025 =

3.How much is 1152 ?     (use same method) 11 x 12 = 132; so 1152 =

4.How much is 1952 ?     19 x 20 = 380; so 1952 =

5. How much is 2 9952 ?     299 x 300 = 89 700; so 2 9952 =

Solutions to Squaring Two Digit Numbers ending in 5

1. 6 000    2. 11 050    3. 13 225    

4. 38 025    5. 8 970 025


Mr Pythagoras **click Pythagoras for print version** 



You might know that Pythagoras is the famous Greek mathematician who told everyone that if you make squares on each side of a right-angled triangle then the area of the square on the triangle’s hypotenuse (the longest side) will always equal the sum of the two squares on the triangle’s other two sides.

Look at the diagram below.

The triangle’s hypotenuse is 5 units in length and the other two sides measure 3 and 4 units. The square drawn on the hypotenuse is 25 square units (5×5) in area; this equals the sum of the other two sides’ areas… 16 (4×4) plus 9 (3×3).

The triangle above (sides 3, 4 and 5) is just one of an infinite number of right-angled triangles. This triangle (3-4-5) is known as a Pythagorean triplet.

Another right-angled triangle is the one with sides 5, 12 and 13 (because 132 = 122 + 52); 5-12-13 is another Pythagorean triplet.

Two other Pythagorean triplets are 7-24-25 (because 252 = 242 + 72) and 9-40-41 (because 412 = 402 + 92).

The first six Pythagorean triplets   (NB: there are other side-length combinations that are found in right-angled triangles but Pythagorean triplets are the only ones with three whole numbers).

side 1

side 2

side 3



















Class or Group Activity:    Let’s say your friend tells you they know of a Pythagorean triplet.   They then say they will tell you the length of just one of the sides but you have to work out the lengths of the other two sides.  Can you do it?  Yes, it’s easy! Read on.

In the table above, can you see any patterns? (there are several). Notice that the middle side is always an even number and that the shortest and longest sides are always odd. Note too that the longest side (the hypotenuse) is always just one unit more than the middle side).

Now, back to your friend, the one who gave you the length of just one side of a right-angles triangle and asked you to come up with the other two sides. By noticing patterns in the Pythagorean triplets table you might just have figured out a way to do it.


Say your friend gives you a side with an even number and asks you to complete the triplet with the other two sides. Simply add 1 to the even number and that will give you the hypotenuse. To work out the 3rd side (in this case, the smallest side) all you have to do is get the square root of the sum of the two sides you already know.

Example 1: Your friend tells you that the side he/she is thinking of is 12 units in length.    12 is an even number so add 1 to 12 and you get 13.                                                              Now you have two sides of the triplet…12 and 13.                                                                   Add 12 and 13 together and you get 25.                                                                                   Now get the square root of 25, which is 5.                                                                                Your Pythagorean triplet is now complete and the sides are 5, 12 and 13.

Example 2: Your friend tells you that the side he/she is thinking of is 11 units in length.    11 is midway between 10 and 12 so multiply 10 and 12 together to get 120.                        Half of 120 is 60 which is the 2nd number of the triplet.                                                        The square root of 132 + 602 is 61.                                                                                                   You have now completed the triplet… 11, 60, 61.

Example 3: Your friend tells you that the side he/she is thinking of is 41 units in length.    41 is midway between 40 and 42 so multiply 40 and 42 together to get 1 680.                        Half of 1 680 is 840 which is the 2nd number of the triplet.                                                                                                                                           As 840 is an even number the other side must be 840+1 units in length.                          Your Pythagorean triplet is now complete and the sides are 41, 840 and 841.


Divisibility Rules  

The Divisibility Rules

These rules let you test if one number can be evenly divided by another, without having to do too much calculation.

A number is divisible by:




The last digit is even (0,2,4,6,8)

128 is 129 is not


The sum of the digits is divisible by 3

381 (3+8+1=12, and 12÷3 = 4) Yes

217 (2+1+7=10, and 10÷3 = 3 1/3) No


The last 2 digits are divisible by 4

1312 is (12÷4=3) 7019 is not


The last digit is 0 or 5

175 is 809 is not


The number is divisible by both 2 and 3

114 (it is even, and 1+1+4=6 and 6÷3 = 2) Yes

308 (it is even, but 3+0+8=11 and 11÷3 = 3 2/3) No


If you double the last digit and subtract it from the rest of the number and the answer is divisible by 7 or 0.

(Note: you can apply this rule to that answer again if you want)

672 (Double 2 is 4, 67-4=63, and 63÷7=9) Yes

905 (Double 5 is 10, 90-10=80, and 80÷7=11 3/7) No


The last three digits are divisible by 8

109816 (816÷8=102) Yes

216302 (302÷8=37 3/4) No


The sum of the digits is divisible by 9

(Note: you can apply this rule to that answer again if you want)

1629 (1+6+2+9=18, and again, 1+8=9) Yes

2013 (2+0+1+3=6) No


The number ends in 0

220 is 221 is not


If you sum every second digit and then subtract the other digits and the answer is divisible by 11 or 0

7392 ((7+9) – (3+2) = 11) Yes

25176 ((5+7) – (2+1+6) = 3) No


The number is divisible by both 3 and 4

648 (6+4+8=18 and 18÷3=6, also 48÷4=12) Yes

916 (9+1+6=16, 16÷3= 5 1/3) No


Famous Mathematicians **click Pascal’s pic for print version** 

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal was born in France in 1623.

Blaise, who had 3 sisters, was saddened by the death of his mother when he was just 3 years old. Blaise’s father had his own views on education and he decided to teach Blaise himself.

His father did not want Blaise to study mathematics until he was 15 so he removed all mathematics books from their house. However this made Blaise curious about maths and, at age 12, he started work on geometry himself. He discovered that the sum of the angles of a triangle equals two right angles.

Blaise Pascal spent his lifetime studying mathematics and, though he did not discover it, is best known for his work on Pascal’s Triangle (see below).

He died in 1662.

        1   1        
      1   2   1      
    1   3   3   1    
  1   4   6   4   1  
1   5   10   10   5   1

Notice that each of the numbers is obtained by finding the sum of the two numbers above it (the first a little to the left, the second a little to the right).


Six rows are shown in Pascal’s Triangle above.

1. Write out the 7th row in the triangle.

2. Sum the numbers in the 7th row.

3. Write out the 8th row in the triangle.

4. What is the total of the numbers in the 8th row?

5. What pattern is formed by the row totals in Pascal’s Triangle?

Solutions to Challenge

1.    1   6   15   20   15   6   1        2.   6

3.   1   7   21   35   35   21   7   1        4.   128

5.   Each row is double the one before.


Fractions (Fundamentals)**click graphic for printable lessons** 



Fractions (Method) **click graphic for printable lessons**


Fractions (Conversions) ** click graphic for printable lessons**


Fractions (Problem Solving) ** click below for printable lessons**



Mathematics Crosswords (1)** click graphic for printable lessons**


Mathematics Crosswords (2)** click graphic for printable lessons**


Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & Division (without calculators): Vol 1 **click graphic for printable lessons**


Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & Division (without calculators): Vol 2 **click graphic for printable lessons**        


Multiplication Tables (1) **click on graphic for printable lessons** 



Multiplication Tables (2) **click on graphic for printable lessons**



**click graphic for print version**

Beach Sand

Q: Some beaches have very white sand while others do not. Why is this? A: The sand is made of different minerals.

White sand beaches (such as those near Perth, the Bahamas, and many other places) are composed of bits of shell and corals which were brought from the ocean shelf to the shore by waves. These shells and corals are made of pure calcite which is nearly always white.

Beaches whose sand is not white (say a yellowy-brown colour) are formed by quartz sand -the raw material for glass- and a few other minor minerals which were eroded from the land and brought to the shore by rivers.

Pure quartz is clear, but there are commonly impurities and coatings on the grains, and with the other minor minerals the sand looks yellowy-brown.


Find the meanings of the following words…

a) calcite         b) quartz           c) mineral           d) eroded         e) impurities       

Talk about or Write about

White, fine-grained beach sand is pleasant to look at and feels good to walk upon.

Do you prefer such a beach or one that is not made up of white sand but instead is covered with many thousands of small shells of different colours, shapes and sizes? What are the pros and cons of these two kinds of beaches?


Blood to the Brain

Your heart works against gravity to pump blood to your brain. If you do a handstand -thereby putting yourself upside down- gravity works with the heart to carry blood to the brain. This results in an increase in blood pressure in the brain which can make you feel a little ‘funny’ and even cause a black-out.

Why doesn’t a giraffe, with its extremely long neck, black-out when it bends over to take a drink of water? …see under pic for the answer.

It’s because a giraffe has an extra-large, very strong heart –needed to pump blood up its long neck to its brain against the force of gravity. When a giraffe’s head is lowered, in spite of the tremendous increase in pressure from the large strong heart pumping blood forcefully to the brain, together with gravitational forces, the animal does not black-out because it has evolved certain adaptations; these include extremely elastic blood vessels, special valves in their neck veins and a network of tiny veins to compensate for the sudden increase in blood pressure.

Not all animals have these kinds of adaptations. A rabbit for example will die if held head upwards, since it simply can’t pump blood to its brain in that unnatural posture.

Talk about or Write about

1. This article talks about two of our most important organs, the brain and the heart. You know that the brain relies on the heart to provide it with blood but the heart needs the brain just as much. How might it be that the heart relies upon the brain in order to function?

2. Some people have a condition called high blood pressure while there are others whose blood pressure is low. From what you read above do you think you could guess possible causes for both these medical ailments?

3. Giraffes have evolved special adaptations to enable them to keep their head lowered. Rabbits, though, haven’t acquired the ability to keep their head raised…why have they not?


How to tell if an Egg has been Boiled

Question: How you might you tell whether an egg is boiled or not without breaking the shell, or using any equipment other than a flat surface?

Answer: Place your egg on a flat surface and spin it. A cooked egg will revolve much faster and continue turning longer than a raw one. Indeed it is difficult to make the raw egg turn. The difference between these two behaviours is, not surprisingly, because the boiled egg is solid and the raw egg contains liquid.

It is easy to spin a rigid body like the boiled egg, because it turns as a whole. Nearly all of the force you apply to the cooked egg contributes to the rotation of the egg.

The raw egg, however, has liquid contents. The liquid centre of the egg, attempting to stay at rest, resists rotation and acts as a brake on the rotation of the egg. Thus the energy you give to the egg is lost in overcoming friction between the liquid contents and the shell, rather than contributing to the rotation of the egg as a whole.

Talk about or Write about:

The Earth spins on its axis, one rotation taking 24 hours. (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.2 seconds to be exact). As you know, most of the Earth’s surface is water (oceans, seas, lakes). Also, lying just below the Earth’s crust there is a layer of molten rock -composed mainly of liquid iron and nickel. So in this way our planet is not unlike the raw egg with its liquid contents.

If the Earth’s surface was completely solid do you think it would spin easier and perhaps faster than it does? (do some research and see what you can find out)


Famous Scientist: Archimedes

Archimedes was born in Syracuse, the largest Greek settlement in Sicily, in 287BC. He was a physicist and mechanical engineer but was best known in the ancient world as an inventor.

Archimedes proved the law of the lever and invented the compound pulley. With these machines, it is possible to move a great weight with a small force. Archimedes reportedly once boasted to Hiero, King of Syracuse: “Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the entire earth.” He was referring to the way levers and pulleys can help people move objects many times their own size. The king challenged him to prove his boast. Archimedes is said to have used a system of pulleys to move a ship fully loaded with passengers and freight.

In his investigations of force and motion, Archimedes discovered that every object has a centre of gravity. This is a single point at which the force of gravity appears to act on the object.

Archimedes did much of his work for King Hiero. In one famous story, the king suspected that a goldsmith had not made a new coin of pure gold, but had mixed in some less costly silver. The king asked Archimedes to find out if the goldsmith had cheated.

Archimedes found the answer to this problem while taking a bath. Archimedes noticed that water spilled out of a bath as he placed his body into it. By measuring the amount of water his body displaced, he could measure his body’s volume. He concluded that any object placed in the bath would displace a volume of water equal to its own volume. Archimedes compared the amount of water displaced by the coin to the amount of water displaced by an equal weight of pure gold. The coin displaced more water, and so it was not pure gold. The goldsmith had cheated. Archimedes was so excited when he found the answer that he ran into the street without dressing, shouting “Eureka!”

Talk about or Write about

1. Would you say that the centre of gravity of planet earth is at earth’s centre?

2. If an object is made of a heavy substance at one end and a light substance at the other end is its centre of gravity nearer the heavier end or the lighter end?

3. Give definitions for lever and pulley.

4. Archimedes found that the coin made of pure gold displaced a different amount of water from the coin that was made of a gold-silver mixture, even though the coins weighed the same. This is because the coins were of different density. What is density?

5. Providing they both sink, is it possible that a small, heavy object could displace as much water as a lighter object that is twice its volume? 



Gordon Gould was born in New York City in 1920. As a child, he idolized the great inventor Thomas Edison. Later, Gould himself would conceive and design one of the most significant inventions of the 20th century, the laser.

In 1957 Gould was working in the Physics Department at Columbia University, USA. One Saturday night, he was inspired “in a flash” with a revolutionary idea: ‘Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation’, or the ‘laser’.

Gould reasoned that a light-wave amplifier would be much more powerful than a maser (which amplifies microwaves), since every photon of light has a hundred thousand times more energy than a photon of microwave energy.

By the end of that weekend, Gould had designed a device that he predicted could heat a substance to the temperature of the sun’s surface in a millionth of a second.

By the time the first of his laser patents was issued in 1977 Gould’s laser technology was already being used in countless practical applications, including welding, scanning and surgery.

Talk about or Write about

1. There are some people who are wary of using microwave ovens to heat food. Why do you suppose this is?

2. Why might it have been so long (20 years) from the time of Gould’s idea to the time his first laser patent was issued?

3. Which of the following laser applications would you think will most benefit humanity: welding, scanning, surgery?

4. What similarities are there between microwaves and lasers?

5. What differences are there between microwaves and lasers?


Does the Moon affect life on Earth?

If there were no moon, the tides would be only about 30% of what they are now …and the tide cycle would perfectly match the daylight cycle (explanation below).

Tides are the rises and falls of large bodies of water (oceans, seas, lakes and rivers); they are caused mainly by the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the moon (the sun has a smaller effect on tides). The oceans bulge out in the direction of the moon. Since the earth is rotating while this is happening another bulge occurs on the opposite side, since the Earth is also being pulled toward the moon (and away from the water) on the far side. So two tides occur each day.

Notice that the tidal cycles have nothing to do with the day-night cycles we experience. Tides are caused by the moon’s pull; day-night cycles are caused by Earth’s rotation on its axis -now we get the sun’s light, soon people in places west of ours will get it (and we’ll experience night).

Many of the most primitive animals live in tidal zones of the ocean, and depend upon the tide cycles being out of tune with the day-night cycles to survive; so if there were no moon, ocean life would be affected. Some animals would perish without a moon; newer life forms -able to adapt to the two cycles being more ‘in sync’- may well evolve.

The moon enables nocturnality (night time activity, daytime sleep) which is important for both predators and prey. Without nocturnality our Earth at night would be a different place for many species (mammals, reptiles and birds among them); hunting, feeding and sleeping habits would be altered.

So yes, the moon certainly does affect life on Earth.

Talk about or Write about

1) The moon’s pull on Earth’s large bodies of water is greater than that of the sun. Given that the sun is much bigger (far greater mass) than the moon how can that be?

2) Our large expanses of water ‘move toward’ the moon. What stops solid materials (mountains, rocks etc) from also moving?

3) Many of the most primitive animals live in tidal zones of the ocean. What would you say is meant by tidal zones?

4) Which ocean creatures would you say are least affected by the moon?

5) What would you say ‘in sync’ means?

6) Which of a nocturnal animal’s five senses do you think would be the most highly evolved?…explain. Which other senses may also be more highly evolved than ours?

7) Here is some real ‘food for thought’! Would it be harder for diurnal animals (squirrels, songbirds…) to have to adapt to permanent night time living or harder for nocturnal animals (koala, possum…) to be forced to adapt to permanent daytime living?



This lesson is designed to train children to observe what happens when a force is increased and to introduce the idea of the force of gravity that causes the mass of objects.

A force is a push or a pull. A force can make an object start moving, stop or change direction. In this lesson you will use forces to start things moving and find out why they stop moving.

1. Put a coin on a flat table. Will it move sideways by itself? [No] What can make it move sideways? [A force] Pick up the coin. Can it move by itself? [No] Let it go. What happens?[It falls] Why did it move? Did you make it move with a force? [No] Did anything push it?[No] Did anything pull it? [Yes, it was pulled down by the force of gravity]

2. Slide the coin down a ruler that’s on a slight slope. Why does the coin slide down? [It is pulled down by the force of gravity] Why does it slide slowly? [There is some push on the coin by the sloping ruler] Make the slope steeper. Slide the coin down. Why does the coin slide down more quickly? [The coin is pulled down by the force of gravity. The sloping ruler pushes up less on the coin] With the coin on the ruler, turn the ruler over. What happens to the coin? [It falls very fast] Why does it fall so fast? [It is pulled down by the force of gravity; the ruler does not push up on it at all so there is nothing to stop the coin from falling] An object falls down when the force pushing up on it is less than its mass.

3. The earth pulls all things towards it. This pull is called the force of gravity.

4. When you hold a coin in your hand is there a pull down on the coin? [Yes] What do you call this force? [The mass of the coin] The mass of the object is the pull down caused by the force of gravity. Does the coin move down? [No] Why not? [The coin does not move down because your hand pushes up the coin. The pull down on the coin is equal to the push up by your hand, so the coin does not move] When an object does not move this is because the pull down is equal to the push up on it.

Extra Activity:Make a slope with a ruler. Slide a 20 cent coin down a slope to hit a 10 cent coin that’s been placed on the table near the bottom of the ruler. Note the height of the slope and how far the 10 cent coin moves. Change the height of the slope a few times but keep the 1o cent coin in the same place near the bottom of the ruler. Make a Table of Results…    Height of slope     Distance 10 cent coin moves

What did you notice about the speed of the 20 cent coin when the height of the slope increased? [It moved faster] What did you notice about the distance the 10 cent coin moved when the height of the slope increased? [It moved farther] Why did these increases occur? [The force of the 20 cent coin hitting the 10 cent coin increased as the height of the slope increased]

Repeat the experiment above but use a 10 cent coin sliding down to hit a 20 cent coin. What do you see? [The 20 cent coin is pushed less distance along the table]

Can you explain why a ripe mango or orange fruit drops to the ground from the tree?

Talk about or Write about

1. What is a force? [A push or a pull] 2. Can a force start things moving? [Yes] 3. Can a force stop things that are moving? [Yes] 4. Can a force make a moving thing change direction? [Yes] 5. Which ball hits your hand with the greatest force, a heavy ball or a light ball? [A heavy ball] 6. A ball thrown high or ball thrown low? [High] 7. Coconut on a tree… is there a force pulling down the coconut? [Yes] 8. What is the force called? [Mass] 9. Is there a force pushing up? [Yes] 10. What is pulling it up? [The tree] 11. Which force is bigger? [If the coconut stays on the tree then, force down = force up]


Reproduction: An Interesting Fact

In former times -before the great advances in medicine- it was not uncommon for babies to survive just weeks, days or even minutes. To reach puberty (reproductive age) then, was something of a feat, especially during times of widespread disease.

In 1665/66 the Great Plague of England killed 100 000 people but the most devastating pandemic in human history -the Black Death- had occurred earlier, between 1348-1350; it wiped out about a third of Europe’s entire population.

Now, there are around 7 billion people inhabiting our planet at this time. Each of these 7 billion -including you- can truthfully say, “Every single one of of my ancestors survived to reproductive age.” (If just one had not, you could never have been born).



In 1674, using a single-lens microscope of his own design, Anton van Leeuwenboek was the first to observe bacteria.

Bacteria are single-cell micro-organisms. They are usually a few micrometres long (a micrometre is a thousandth of a millimetre) and have many different shapes including spheres, rods and spirals.

 Bacteria live in every possible habitat on the planet including soil, underwater, deep in the earth’s crust and even such environments as acidic hot springs and radioactive waste. There are about a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water.

Not all bacteria are harmful. Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients and are important in processes such as wastewater treatment and the production of antibiotics (in laboratories) and certain chemicals. There are 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells in the human body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and in the digestive tract. Although the great majority of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful), a few can cause infectious diseases, including cholera and anthrax. The most common bacterial disease is tuberculosis.

Questions  (answers in red)

1. What is a micro-organism?     an extremely tiny life-form

2. A little bit of maths for you….about how many bacteria are there in a litre of fresh water?      about a billion (a thousand million)

3. The first line of the 2nd paragraph contains the word vital. What does this mean?    necessary, essential, extremely important

4. There is a large number of bacteria in the digestive tract. What is the digestive tract?   the path in our body through which food passes


The Human Heart

When you drink a glass of water you consume, let’s say, 250 ml.

Four glasses, then, contain a litre (think of the litre of milk you buy at the supermarket).

Imagine, and try to ‘see’, sixteen glasses of water, placed alongside one another in a row; these sixteen glasses contain 4 litres of water.

Forty glasses of water placed alongside one another contain 10 litres of water.

One hundred and sixty glasses of water placed alongside one another contain 40 litres of water (40 litres of petrol would take you a long way in a car). Try to visualize these one hundred and sixty glasses of water side by side in a straight line.

Now let’s do a little multiplying.

Visualize ten such rows of one hundred and sixty water-filled glasses; that’s a lot of glasses -1 600 – (400 litres of water).

Now try to see one hundred such rows of 160 glasses -16 000 – (4 000 litres of water).

Lastly, see how you go at imagining one thousand such rows of 160 glasses; that’s 160 000 glasses, containing 40 000 litres.

OK, we’re going to change the contents of these 160 000 glasses from water to……… blood.

We now have 160 000 blood-filled glasses…40 000 litres. A lot of blood? Yep, sure is…

And that’s how much blood the adult human heart pumps around the body each day!

  – 40 000 litres of petrol would power the average car around the world 10 times – 


Science Research Puzzles **click on graphic for printable lessons**


Space & the Universe**click on graphic for printable lessons** 



Australian Dinosaurs (1) **click dinosaur for print version** 

                                                   image courtesy and © Dann Pigdon

Dinosaur remains have been found in the opal fields of South Australia and New South Wales. Kakuru is represented by a single almost-complete tibia (lower leg bone) from Andamooka in South Australia. The word “Kakuru” means “rainbow serpent” in the local Aboriginal language, probably because the opalised fossil sparkles with many colours. Other South Australian fossil material includes a juvenile hypsilophodontid vertebra from Andemooka, and an ankle bone of a large ornithopod, perhaps something like Muttaburrasaurus, from Coober Pedy.

Talk about or Write about

1. When people learn that dinosaurs lived in Australia many don’t realise that our land looked nothing like it does now. The Australian continent had not long broken away from Antarctica and would have had a different size and shape than what it has today. Also, there was a large inland sea occupying about a third of Australia’s land area. So what does it actually mean to say that dinosaur remains have been found in South Australia?

2. What do opals and rainbows have in common?

3. Looking at the image above, how tall and how long would you say Kakuru was?

4. What would you estimate the height and length of Muttaburrasaurus to be?

5. Of the four dinosaurs in the picture, three are bipeds and the other is quadrupedal. What does this mean?

6. What modern-day creature does Kakuru most remind you of?

7. If you were lucky enough to find an opalised dinosaur fossil would you value it more for its beauty or its rarity? What would you do with it?


Australian Dinosaurs (2) **click graphic for dinosaur lessons** 



Written Expression & Creative Writing **click hand for print version**



Before you begin any story you need to spend a few minutes thinking (and –even better- jotting down) words or phrases to remind yourself of key ideas and points.

What will my story be about? Where will it take place? Who will be ‘in’ the story?

Don’t make your story like everybody else’s: make it special by having a fascinating plot, an unusual setting and ‘colourful’ unforgettable characters. If you really try hard to do this your stories will go from being just ordinary to very special.

Delilah the Dolphin Suppose Delilah was a much-loved dolphin who performed tricks for the public at an oceanarium.

The plot below tells how a gang of criminals captured Delilah and smuggled her out of the country.

*an oceanarium is a large sea water aquarium for keeping sea animals*

Plot: The gang enter the oceanarium in the middle of the night, firing a drugged dart into Delilah. They tow her to a waiting mega-yacht, fitted out with a large pool (this is Delilah’s home for the voyage to Krukimenza). The gang’s plans become undone when Kira, Head Dolphin Trainer at the oceanarium, discovers Delilah’s whereabouts when searching the internet. The gang is captured and Delilah brought back home.

Your task: 

Write a paragraph of 6-8 sentences describing one of the gang members.  Mention physical appearance, character traits and any idiosyncrasies this person possesses.




1) Do you think ghosts exist?

2) Why are people afraid of ghosts?

3) How would you feel about entering a so-called haunted house, alone?

4) Some people have been known to spend a night in a cemetery. What might be their reason(s) for doing so?

5) Imagine you could be a ghost for 24 hours. What would you do? (e.g. would you scare someone? -who/ why/ when/ where/ how?)


Definition & Example

Here are some words with their definitions.

In each case write a sentence containing the word.

(your sentence should neither be too short nor too long and you should try to use excellent vocabulary; use an example from your own experience or from something you’ve seen, heard or read about).


i. sticking out: prominent teeth.

ii. outstanding or important: a prominent citizen.

Now write a sentence containing the word prominent.


i. information sent from one person to another.

ii. the meaning of something such as a book or what it tries to teach you.

Now write a sentence containing the word message.


i. a declaration or statement that you will do, or keep from doing something.

ii. signs of future excellence: to show promise.

Now write a sentence containing the word promise.


i. excellence: a painting of merit  

ii. merits: the qualities or features of something or someone, whether good or bad: let’s take each case on its merits

Now write a sentence containing the word merit.



Similes appeal to your readers’ senses by comparing objects, characters etc to things your readers are familiar with.

Similes come in two kinds:        1) comparing things using like           2) comparing things using as.

Similes help us to make our point, to ‘drive home’ the image we’re trying to convey.

Consider these examples:

– The coins in the treasure chest glistened like a million twinkling stars in the night sky. 

– I was as happy as a polar bear on ice.

– My experience of snorkling in the coral atoll was like a fantastic dream.

– I was as excited as a palaeontologist in a pit of dinosaur bones.

Your turn:

1)   Write a like simile to describe an extremely loud thunder clap.

2)   Write an as simile to tell how you felt when you noticed that your bicycle had been stolen.

3)   Write a like simile to tell about an approaching swarm of bees.

4)   Write an as simile to say how you felt just before an important test or exam.

5)   Write a like simile describing how your friend looked after being caught in a rain storm.

6)   Write an as simile about your new kitten as it played with a ball of wool.


Conjunctions: Joining sentences with ‘when’

Two sentences can be joined by using when at the beginning or in the middle.

Example:    The light turned green. The bus drove on.

  • When the light turned green the bus drove on.

  • The bus drove on when the light turned green.

Activity Join each pair of sentences in two ways:

1. The wind blew. The sea became rough.

2. The performance finished. We all applauded.

3. We collected wood. We lit a fire.

4. The dog came. Its owner called.


1. When the wind blew the sea became rough.   The sea became rough when the wind blew.

2. When the performance finished we all applauded.   We all applauded when the performance finished.

3. When we collected wood we lit a fire.    We lit a fire when we collected wood.

4. When its owner called the dog came.  The dog came when its owner called.


Acrostic Poem

An acrostic poem is a special kind of poem.

The first line begins with the first letter of the title, the second line with the second letter of the title, the third line with the third letter of the title, and so on.

Here is an example of an acrostic poem:


Skimming the sky

The clouds build up

Over the mountains

Rain, thunder and lightning

Make people stay inside

See them listening and waiting

        Now write your own acrostic poem, with a subject of your choice. 


Curious Combinations

Use the table below to write a story based on the combination of birthday months particular to you. You may (but don’t have to) use your combination as the title.

Example 1: If your birthday is in June, your mother’s is in January and your father’s is in September, you would write a story about Mr Wilson’s absolutely huge chess set (and your title -if you wanted- could be ‘Mr Wilson’s Absolutely Huge Chess Set’).

Example 2: If your birthday is in December, your mother’s is in April and your father’s is in February, you would write a story about Sylvia Morris’s gigantic red refrigerator (and your title -if you wanted- could be ‘Sylvia Morris’s Gigantic Red Refrigerator’).

My Birthday Month


My mother’s Birthday Month


My father’s Birthday Month

Inanimate Object


Aunty May’s


absolutely huge




The Benson Twins’


magical pink






ugly-looking, useless




Old Mrs Hamilton’s


gigantic red


letter box


Uncle Tony’s




table lamp


Mr Wilson’s


brand new




Ned the Builder’s


incredibly cool




Professor Pumpernickle’s


unbelievably shabby




The Alien invader’s




chess set




mysterious silver




Dr Smithers’


unpredictable purple




Sylvia Morris’s







Creative Thinking 

Here are the beginnings of some stories. Choose one and finish it. 

Additional instructions  (1) have two main characters; (2) if you wish, you may make your story fun/humorous (3)  include an animal of your choice in your story

– Suddenly, the sky lit up…

– He limped toward the waiting train..…

– There was a loud bang and then…….

– The young musician walked nervously on stage.…

– A huge black bear lumbered toward the highway…

– Out of the darkness and into the light of the campfire came…

– A piercing scream was heard…

– I didn’t believe in magic spells, but…..

– The huge crocodile opened its jaws wide…

– The express train roared on into the night…

– The tornado moved slowly toward the Jacksons’ house.

– The tiny boat slowly pulled away from the shore…

– Under a blazing hot sun an empty road stretched far into the distance.

– The army sergeant roared, “

– There, right in my own backyard, was…

– His name was Ludwig.

– A strange, unusual smell came from the swamp…

– I felt my body shrinking, shrinking…


Vocabulary Building Favourite Animals


1. My favourite animal is …(complete the sentence)

2. Why I like this animal …(1-3 sentences)

3. My description of this animal …(1-3 sentences)

4. How my favourite animal moves…(1-3 sentences)

5. This animal likes to…(1-3 sentences)

6. It doesn’t like…(1-3 sentences)

Here are some words that could be used to describe animals:alert   alluring  amiable   appealing   authoritative  belligerent  bizarre   captivating   charismatic    clumsy   commanding   coy   cultivated   enchanting   endearing  erratic   exotic   ferocious    frail   gargantuan   gentle  gluttonous   graceful    hulking  humble  imposing   impulsive   inquisitive   intriguing   majestic   mischievous   nocturnal  patterned  placid   radiant  regal  robust   serene   sleek  slender   streamlined  striking  stunning   subdued   timid  unadorned   volatile  vulnerable

7. Choose two of the above words that apply to your favourite animal.

8. Choose two of the above words that do not apply to your favourite animal.

9. Use the word majestic in a sentence about any animal other than your favourite.

10. Choose the words robust and serene in the same sentence about any animal.

11. Choose eight different words from above to describe the following animals (use one adjective for each animal):      a. dolphin     b. tiger     c.mouse     d. giraffe     e. elephant     f. crocodile     g. whale     h. gorilla


Creative Thinking  Coin near a Drain

A $1 coin falls out of a lady’s handbag and rolls along the footpath before settling next to a drain.

The lady goes to pick it up but a young boy gets there first and walks off quickly with the coin in his hand.

The agitated lady follows the boy, protesting that the coin is hers.

Imagine you are the coin. Give a first person account of what happened and where you end up. 

Additional instructions: 

(1) describe the initial scene

(2) say how you came into the lady’s possession

(3) discuss what was with you in the lady’s handbag

(4) describe how it felt when you hit the footpath

(5) mention who you would rather be with, the lady or the boy


 Nature, Wild & Wonderful

Choose one of the natural features below and then, adhering to the *additional instructions, write an interesting fictional story about your experience of it.

thundering waterfall     forbidding canyon      raging river      tranquil lake               towering tree     erupting volcano      gentle breeze   violent earthquake           bubbling brook     crashing waves      steamy swamp    giant surf

*Additional instructions:      – Write in the first person. – Include: one young person apart from yourself; a crippled old man or lady;  an animal of your choice. – Conclude with a surprise ending. – Give your story a suitable title.


Australian & American Spelling **click on graphic for print version**

Here are the principal differences in spelling between Australian and American Spelling.



Final -l is always doubled after one vowel in stressed and unstressed syllables in Australian English but usually only in stressed syllables in American English, for example:

rebel> rebelled

travel > travelled

rebel> rebelled

travel > traveled

Some words end in -tre in Australian English and -ter in American English, for example:





Some words end in -ogue in Australian English and -og in American English, for example:





Some words end in -our in Australian English and -or in American English, for example:





Some verbs end in -ize or -ise in Australian English but only in -ize in American English, for example:

realise, realize

harmonise, harmonize




Vocabulary, Grammar & Spelling **click on words below for print version**

Vocabulary Building

Find the meanings of the words in bold. Write each word and the correct meaning from the brackets next to it. Then make up a sentence for each word.

diligent (cheerful, hard-working, lazy)

exceed (go beyond, give up, expect)

extend (pay back, look after, stretch out)

humane (strong, kind, manly)

unassuming (humble, the end, small)


14 Ways to Practise Your Spellings

1. Alphabetize the words.

2. Divide each word into syllables (use a dictionary to help you).

3. Write the words and circle all the vowels.

4. Write the words and circle all the consonants.

5. Write the words and cross out the silent letters.

6. Write the words neatly in pencil or pen.

7. Write the words in REVERSE alphabetical order.

8. Write sentences using the words. Underline the word.

9. Study the words for 10 minutes at home. You must bring in a signed note.

10. Take a practice test at home. Write any missed words 3x each. Include a parent’s signature.

11. Print each word. Next to it, write it in cursive.

12. Write a very short story using at least 10 of the words. Underline the words.

13. Write newspaper headlines using the words. Underline each word.

14. Print each word. What do you think the definition is? Write it down. Then, look the word up in the dictionary to check.



(a cross-curricular activity involving dictionary skills)

Arrange each of these words in their correct categories. They must be placed in alphabetical order.

SET 1:    tomato   beaver   pomegranate   ammeter   theodolite   dingo   microscope   avocado   buffalo   alligator   grape   pliers

Animals: ………………….

Fruits: ………………

Tools or Instruments: ……………………..

SET 2:     mahogany   geranium   dahlia   aluminium   bronze   hickory   tulip   uranium   palm   eucalypt   gladioli platinum

Flowers: ……………………

Minerals: ……………………

Trees: ………………….

SET 3:    larynx   croquet   quotient   kidney   vaulting   marathon   remainder   cranium   divisor   sparring   difference   corpuscles

Your Body ……………………..

Sports ……………………

Mathematical Terms ……………………

SET 4:   valet   decanter   couch   brewer   rye   scuttle   stevedore   paspalum   kikuyu   chest   farrier   coffin

Grasses ……………………

Containers ……………………

Occupations …………………



The following passage is about a storm. Rewrite it with correct punctuation:

suddenly there was a deafening roar     the cyclone hit with full force    mr simmons yelled come and take shelter in here     in a few minutes the fierce winds quietened down a bit      gee I dont ever want to go through that again said sams auntie whod come all the way from brisbane


Reading Comprehension **click box for print version**

Frederick the Fisherman

He was always there when I arrived, just before sunrise. He’d be sitting at the end of the jetty, rod in hands, waiting for a bite.

A most unsociable fellow he was. We’d sit there for hours, just him and me, and not a word would be spoken. I used to try to talk to him but all I got were one-word responses, sometimes only grunts or nods, so I gave up. He obviously preferred the silence. Maybe he was deep in his thoughts, I never knew.

I’d heard that his name was Frederick. No-one could tell me any more about him than that. He’d been coming to Coogee Beach for about five years, every morning (weather permitting).

I don’t know how old he was. It was hard to tell really. He was always dressed the same, summer and winter, with one of those fishermen’s hats with a flap down the back, a dark waterproof coat, and big blue rubber boots. He had a full grey beard with flecks of black; his hands were weathered and gnarled.

Did he have a family? Where did he live? No-one knew. And I think no-one cared.

Frederick didn’t catch too many fish. When he did get a bite he’d reel it in, take it off the hook, throw it in the bucket, cast his line again and sit back on his folding chair…no words, no gestures, no emotions.

It annoyed me that he kept fish that were undersized; in all the hundreds of times I sat out there beside him I never saw him throw a small one back.

Occasionally a boat would pass by and someone on it would wave. I’d wave back. But not Frederick. I don’t think he even noticed boats. He’d just stare blankly, vacantly, at the water.

One winter’s morning I arrived at the jetty. It was fresh and crisp, good for fishing, but Frederick wasn’t there.

Days passed. Weeks. Still no Frederick.

Then one day I was reading the newspaper and I came across this:

Obituary: Frederick William Thompson, 1939-2009. Former Professor of Mathematics at the University of Western Australia. Respected and admired by colleagues and students; renowned for his humour and for making mathematics fun and interesting. Cause of death: unknown (suspected broken heart). Mr Thompson was the devoted husband of Laura (deceased) who was tragically drowned in a 2004 boating accident.

RIP Frederick the Fisherman.

Story Details

Genre:   narrative Mood:   sombre, reflective Vocabulary Enrichment:    unsociable   preferred   gestures   renowned   colleagues   tragically   inwardness   solitary Figurative Language Used:    paradox

Talk about or Write about

1. Why do you think Frederick went fishing every day?

2. Frederick’s ‘inwardness’ and solitary behaviour can be explained by a tragic incident from his past. Do you think he may have been on the boat when his wife drowned? What may have happened?

3. Why should we not be too quick to judge people who we don’t really know?

4. A tragedy can affect someone’s future behaviour. Perhaps a wonderful experience may also affect future behaviour. Can you think of an example?


Literature (Prose, Poetry etc) **click graphic for print version** 

Tarantella  by Hilaire Belloc

Listen to Tarantella here:

Do you remember an Inn, Miranda? Do you remember an Inn? And the tedding and the spreading Of the straw for a bedding, And the fleas that tease in the High Pyrenees, And the wine that tasted of the tar? And the cheers and the jeers of the young muleteers Under the vine of a dark verandah?

Do you remember an Inn, Miranda, Do you remember an Inn? And the cheers and the jeers of the young muleteers Who hadn’t got a penny And who weren’t paying any, And the hammer at the doors and the din?

And the Hip! Hop! Hap! Of the clap Of the hands of the twirl and the swirl Of the girls gone chancing, Glancing, Dancing, Backing and advancing, Snapping of a clapper to the spin Out and in – And the Ting, Tong, Tang, of the Guitar.

Do you remember an Inn, Miranda? Do you remember an Inn? Never more, Miranda, Never more. Only the high peaks hoar And Aragon a torrent at the door. No sound In the walls of the Halls where falls The tread Of the feet of the dead to the ground No sound But the boom Of the Waterfall Like Doom.

Talk about or Write about

1. What is Tarantella about?

2. How is the poem similar to other poems?

3. How is it different?

4. Both rhyme and rhythm are strong features of Tarantella. What is the difference between rhyme and rhythm?

5. Choosing two or three lines from the poem show by finger-tapping or hand-clapping how Hillaire Belloc varies the rhythm.


How to Write Wonderful Stories **click graphic for printable lessons**


SOSE (Studies of Society & Environment)

Mixed Topics (green headings below)**click this graphic for print version of all topics with green headings**

Communications and the Media

Talk about or Write about    –answers in red

1. What is meant by the word communication? Transmitting thoughts, ideas, knowledge, intentions etc to others.

2. Give some everyday reasons people need to communicate. What would you like for breakfast? When will you be home? May I watch television? Would you like to come to my party? etc etc.

3. It is easier for people to communicate with each other than it was in ancient times. Why is this? Early people needed to rely on hand gestures and speech. Then came primitive communications such as smoke signals and bongo drums. Now we can send text messages, emails, ‘snail mail’, use telephones and produce newsletters. We also have the print and electronic media.

4. How would your ability to communicate be affected if you were deaf? You could not hear voices (including phone), hear things on the radio, TV, etc.

5. How would your ability to communicate be affected if you were blind? Could not see others’ faces, read texts, magazines or books;  could not watch watch television, movies or see a computer screen.

6. How would your ability to communicate be affected if you were unable to speak? Could not talk face to face or on the phone.

7. How would your ability to communicate be affected if you had no fingers? Could not send text messages, send emails, write letters or postcards.

8. What prevents people from different places in the world from having good communications with each other?   1. Different languages.  2. Some have limited access to print and electronic media.

9. How could this problem be overcome? 1. Have a universal language (such as Esperanto) -though English is emerging as the major world language. 2. Redistribute wealth more evenly among all nations and create better educational opportunities in poorer countries.

10. Are there advantages in preserving the world’s many languages? Yes. Languages enrich cultures; they are interesting to study; we can borrow words from other languages and incorporate them into our own.

Communications and the Media Quiz  –answers in blue

1. Two forms of media are the electronic media and the p _ _ n _  media.    print

2. Newspaper editors check the work of  _ u _  editors.       sub

3. Individuals can advertise in the C l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ section of newspapers.      Classified

4. Television and radio advertisements are also called c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. (plural)    commercials

5. Sending advertising direct to customers is called _ _ _ _ _ _ marketing.     direct

6. People who write stories for newspapers are called  _ e p  _ _ _ _ _ _. (plural)     reporters

7. Most newspapers have a ‘Letters to the E _ _ _ _ _’ page.        Editor

8. An anonymous letter writer does not like to us their _ _ _ _.        name

9. Towers are used to transmit s _ _ _ _ l s from mobile phones. (plural)       signals

10. People can present their point of view on T _ _ _  b _ _ k radio shows. (two words)  Talk back

11. Formerly, dots and dashes were used in M _ _ _ _  C _ _ _ communications. (two words)   Morse Code

12. Long ago American Indians tribes used smoke s _ _ _ _ _ _ to communicate with one another.         signals

13. N _ _ _ l _ _ _ _ _ _ are often used to communicate club news. (plural)    Newsletters

14. Sometimes announcements are made over a Public A _ _ _ _ _ _ System.      Address

15. Email has partly taken the place of mail sent through the P _ _ _ _ _ system.    Postal

16. Some advertisers use giant B _ _ _ boards to advertise their products.         Billboards

17. In public places people should not speak l _ _ _ _ _  into their phones.        loudly

18. P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ produce books, magazines or newspapers. (plural)         Publishers

19. Ancient Egyptians communicated by drawing p _ _ t _ _ _ _ called pictographs. (plural)         pictures

20. Cyclists communicate their intentions with _ _ _ _ signals.        hand


World Cities 

Chloe and her little brother Jack are going on a world trip with their family next year and they’ll be visiting 10 major cities.

The cities are: (1) England’s capital (2) France’s capital (3) Switzerland’s largest (4) Poland’s capital (5) India’s largest (6) China’s largest (7) Japan’s capital (8) Canada’s largest (9) Brazil’s capital (10) New Zealand’s largest

Answer true or false:

a) One city begins with A and one begins with Z.          True (Auckland, Zurich)

b) Two of the cities begin with vowels.           False (Auckland)

c) Two of the cities begin with T.          True (Tokyo, Toronto)

d) One city begins with the same letter as its country.      True (Brazil/Brasilia)

e) Three cities are in the southern hemisphere.      False (Brasilia, Auckland)

f)  Four of the cities have 6 letters in their name.   True (London, Zurich, Warsaw, Mumbai)

g) Two of the cities have 4 syllables in their name.       False (Brasilia)

h) Seven of the cities have 2 syllables in their name.        True (London, Paris, Zurich, Warsaw, Mumbai, Shanghai, Auckland)

i) Three of the cities are in Asia.     True (Mumbai, Shanghai, Tokyo)

j) More than 7 of the cities are on the coast.     False (Mumbai, Shanghai, Tokyo, Auckland)



Europe is one of the seven traditional continents.

Though it’s the second-smallest continent in area (Australia is smaller) it is the third-largest (after Asia and Africa) in population.

Europe gets its name from Europa who was a princess in Greek mythology. Originally Europa stood for mainland Greece but by 500 BC its meaning had been extended to lands to the north.

Eighty to ninety per cent of Europe was once covered by forests, which stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean.

Though over half of Europe’s original forests disappeared through the centuries of deforestation, it still has over one quarter of its land area as forest.

Talk about or Write about      (suggested solutions in red)

1. What do you think might be a reason(s) why Europe, a small continent in area, has a large population?      suitable lands to cultivate and inhabit; (others)

2. What might have been the reason that the name Europa came to extend northwards from Greece?     Greek influence may have spread north

3. What do you think could have been reasons for Europe losing so much of its forests?     people needed more land for farming and settlement

4. What kind of animal and plant species may have been affected by Europe’s loss of forest?     birds, tree-dwelling mammals, plants needing shade, etc

5. a) Perhaps you have a European heritage. Would you care to share that with us? b) Have you visited Europe? If so, where did you go and what were some highlights?


Famous People in History Quiz

1) What was the first name of Bonaparte, the French military and political leader?

2) _______ Polo walked from Italy to Asia where he had a series of adventures; he returned after 24 years.

3) Vice Admiral Horatio _________ won several military victories for Britain, including the Battle of Trafalgar.

4) This ancient Greek philosopher was a student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle.

5) Julius ________ was a military and political leader in ancient Rome.

6) Louis_______ invented a method of reading for blind people.


1) Napoleon   2) Marco   3) Nelson    4) Plato   5) Caesar    6) Braille


Our World (Puzzles) **click graphic for print version**


Gen Knowledge Research Crosswords **Click on graphic for printable lessons**


RequestSo that we can make this site as classroom-friendly as possible we would be pleased to hear from any teachers who have tried any of our ideas, suggestions or lessons with their classes. Just a very short note mentioning year level, idea/suggestion used, whether it was a written exercise, class discussion or debate, and any other useful feedback would be appreciated. (school name optional but State would be of interest)
                               Send feedback to info[at] 


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4 Responses to Worksheets & Ideas for Years 5-10

  1. Lucy Teariki says:

    THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH… Everything I need for all 4 of my children. From year 1 to Year 6 worksheets. Better yet in booklet style (work book) rather than individual templates/worksheets.
    I’ve spent half the day downloading, saving and printing individual worksheets for each child. Australian Teacher your the best. 🙂

  2. Alka Sharma says:

    Thank you for such a brilliant website. It is the best website that I have found for teaching my kids at home. I just love the clear, coherent way that you organise it all, but mostly it’s the content of the lesson ideas that is great.

    Hope you will upload more workbooks for practice.

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